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If a man is mad he shall not be at large in the city, but hisrelations shall keep him at home in any way which they can; or if not,let them pay a penalty-he who is of the highest class shall pay apenalty of one hundred drachmae, whether he be a slave or a freemanwhom he neglects; and he of the second class shall pay four-fifthsof a mina; and he of the third class three-fifths; and he of thefourth class two-fifths. Now there are many sorts of madness, somearising out of disease, which we have already mentioned; and there areother kinds, which originate in an evil and passionate temperament,and are increased by bad education; out of a slight quarrel this classof madmen will often raise a storm of abuse against one another, andnothing of that sort ought to be allowed to occur in a well-orderedstate. Let this, then, be the law about abuse, which shall relate toall cases:-No one shall speak evil of another; and when a man disputeswith another he shall teach and learn of the disputant and thecompany, but he shall abstain from evilspeaking; for out of theimprecations which men utter against one another, and the femininehabit of casting aspersions on one another, and using foul names,out of words light as air, in very deed the greatest enmities andhatreds spring up. For the speaker gratifies his anger, which is anungracious element of his nature; and nursing up his wrath by theentertainment of evil thoughts, and exacerbating that part of his soulwhich was formerly civilized by education, he lives in a state ofsavageness and moroseness, and pays a bitter penalty for his anger.And in such cases almost all men take to saying something ridiculousabout their opponent, and there is no man who is in the habit oflaughing at another who does not miss virtue and earnestnessaltogether, or lose the better half of greatness. Wherefore let no oneutter any taunting word at a temple, or at the public sacrifices, orat games, or in the agora, or in a court of justice, or in anypublic assembly. And let the magistrate who presides on theseoccasions chastise an offender, and he shall be blameless; but if hefails in doing so, he shall not claim the prize of virtue; for he isone who heeds not the laws, and does not do what the legislatorcommands. And if in any other place any one indulges in these sortof revilings, whether he has begun the quarrel or is only retaliating,let any elder who is present support the law, and control with blowsthose who indulge in passion, which is another great evil; and if hedo not, let him be liable to pay the appointed penalty. And we saynow, that he who deals in reproaches against others cannot reproachthem without attempting to ridicule them; and this, when done in amoment of anger, is what we make matter of reproach against him. Butthen, do we admit into our state the comic writers who are so fondof making mankind ridiculous, if they attempt in a good-natured mannerto turn the laugh against our citizens? or do we draw thedistinction of jest and earnest, and allow a man to make use ofridicule in jest and without anger about any thing or person; thoughas we were saying, not if he be angry have a set purpose? We forbidearnest-that is unalterably fixed; but we have still to say who are tobe sanctioned or not to be sanctioned by the law in the employmentof innocent humour. A comic poet, or maker of iambic or satiricallyric verse, shall not be permitted to ridicule any of the citizens,either by word or likeness, either in anger or without anger. And ifany one is disobedient, the judges shall either at once expel him fromthe country, or he shall pay a fine of three minae, which shall bededicated to the God who presides over the contests. Those only whohave received permission shall be allowed to write verses at oneanother, but they shall be without anger and in jest; in anger andin serious earnest they shall not be allowed. The decision of thismatter shall be left to the superintendent of the general education ofthe young, and whatever he may license, the writer shall be allowed toproduce, and whatever he rejects let not the poet himself exhibit,or ever teach anybody else, slave or freeman, under the penalty ofbeing dishonoured, and held disobedient to the laws.

Undoubted talent- a welcome offering- a flower in the garden of

she felt quite happy- she was sure that her love was returned. But his

This pleasantry was received with a general laugh.

  While Napoleon was passing through the death struggle at Longwood, the sixty thousand men who had fallen on the field of Waterloo were quietly rotting, and something of their peace was shed abroad over the world.

  "Copy, Gold Leader."






















  On the whole, let us say it plainly, it was more of a massacre than of a battle at Waterloo.


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